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Spain is a country in Southern Europe. It is in the Iberian Peninsula. Spain has borders with France, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. Ceuta and Melilla border with Morocco in North Africa. In Spain’s northeast side are the Pyrenees mountains.
The people of Spain are called Spaniards. They speak Castilian or Spanish (in Spanish, “Castellano”, from Castilla, or “Español”). They speak other languages in some parts of the country. They are Catalan, Basque, and Asturian, Galician, Leonese, Aragonese, Aranese Occitan and even Portuguese. The religion of about 56% of the population in Spain is Roman Catholic.
Since 1975, Spain has had a constitutional monarchy. The King of Spain is Felipe VI; he only does what the constitution allows him to. The parliament is called “Las Cortes Generales,” and has two bodies: “El Congreso” (The Congress) and “El Senado” (The Senate) and it is chosen by the Spanish people by voting. The Prime minister is Pedro Sánchez. The government and the king’s palace are in Madrid, the capital of Spain.
Spain has more than five hundred thousand square kilometres of land. It is smaller than France, but it is bigger than Germany. Almost fifty million people live in Spain. Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities (this means that they can decide upon some affairs themselves). Each community has its own government.
Spain is known for flamenco which is usually performed by the Caló.
Spain was a predominant Colonial Empire and had colonies throughout South America, Asia, Oceania and Africa with a large hold of European lands.
Spain was under a dictatorship.
Francisco Franco (1932-1974)
Main article: History of Spain
Early history[change | change source]
Lady of Elche made by the Iberians
People have lived in Spain since the Stone Age. Later, the Roman Empire controlled Spain for about five hundred years; then as the Roman Empire broke up, groups of Germanic people including Visigoths moved in and took control.
Muslim rule[change | change source]
In 711, many parts of the Iberian Peninsula became under the control of the Muslim Umayyad Caliphate. They called the land Al-Andalus; it was the farthest western point of Islamic civilization. In 756, the Umayyads were defeated by the Abbasid in the east. The Umayyads ruled the Caliphate of Córdoba, which fell apart in the early 11th century. Muslim rulers sometimes fought each other when they were not fighting the Christians. Muslim Spain was focused on learning. The greatest library system outside Baghdad.
At first the Muslims ruled most of Spain but the reconquista slowly forced them out over seven centuries.
Kingdom of León[change | change source]
The Kingdom of León, the most important in the early Spanish Middle Ages, was started in 910. This Kingdom developed the first democratic parliament (Cortes de Llión) in Europe in 1188. After 1301, León had the same King as the Kingdom of Castile in personal union. The various kingdoms remained independent territories until 1833, when Spain was divided into regions and provinces.
In 1492, the Christians took the last part of Spain that still belonged to the Moors, Granada. Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrendered to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile on 2 January 1492. Ferdinand and Isabella then ruled all of Spain.
Before this, there were a number of Christian countries in what is now called Spain. Two of these countries, Castile and Aragon, came together when Ferdinand II of Aragon married the queen Isabella of Castile. The King ruled as much as the Queen.
Inside of the Mezquita in Córdoba, a Muslim mosque which became a Christian cathedral.
In the same year, 1492, they sent Christopher Columbus to sail across the Atlantic Ocean. Columbus found the islands of the Caribbean Sea.
When other Europeans explored, like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro, they found out that there were two continents there – North America and South America. Spanish conquistadores took over very large parts of those two continents. This empire did not make Spain a rich country, for most of the money had to be spent in wars in Italy and elsewhere. Some of these wars were fought against other European countries who were trying to take over parts of the Americas.
Meanwhile, at home, the Muslim manuscripts had been either burnt or taken to other countries. Jews had also been expelled from Spain. Some Jews remained but they had to become Christians. Among the few old things kept and respected in Spain were in music: harmony and stringed instruments. The buildings that had been built by the Moors were kept, and many Muslim religious buildings (mosques) were turned into churches. Some Jewish religious buildings were also turned into churches. Many Arab words became part of the Spanish Language
16th and 17th century[change | change source]
The grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella was Charles. When his grandfather died he inherited Castille and Aragon. He also inherited many territories at the death of his other grandfather, Maximilian I of Austria. Charles received from Maximilian the Austria state and the territories of Burgundy. He was named Charles I in Spain, but he was elected as the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and was called Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. This made the empire bigger than ever. However, it was not a single country, but a personal union of many independent countries with a single King. At first many Spaniards did not want Charles as their king, so they fought against him. However, he won.
Charles did not like the Protestant Reformation, and fought against it.
18th century[change | change source]
In the 18th century some of the parts of that large empire became their own countries, or were taken over by new countries, such as the United States of America.
19th century[change | change source]
Spain (and other European countries) was invaded by Napoleon of France. Britain sent troops to defend the peninsula, since it was so weak. Most of the Spanish Empire became independent in the following decades.
20th century[change | change source]
There was not much peace in Spain during the first part of the 20th century. Some Spaniards tried to set up a government chosen by the people (a democracy), and they made Alfonso XIII leave the country. However, in 1936, two different groups of Spaniards went to war over whether the government should be a democracy, in the Spanish Civil War (although those on the side of the Republic were largely socialist or anarchist), or take orders from one person. In 1939, those who wanted democracy were defeated, and a nationalist dictator named Francisco Franco took over the government.
Francisco Franco died on 20 November 1975. He had decided that Spain should have a monarchy again, and he chose Juan Carlos, the grandson of Juan of Bourbon who had been forced to leave the country, to be king and Adolfo Suárez to become its first Prime Minister. But the king and Suárez did not rule as a dictator; instead, they chose to set up a democracy.
On 23 February 1981 a group of people who had supported the now dead General Franco tried to take control of the democratic Spanish Parliament by force, they entered the building and fired guns in the air. It was seen live on Spanish television and there was widespread fear that this might be the start of another civil war. However, Juan Carlos I, quickly appeared on television and broadcast to the nation that they should remain calm. The persons responsible for the attempt to take over the country were arrested.
Now Spain is a modern democratic country, and does business with many countries around the world. It is the eighth largest economy in the world and is an important part of the European Union.
21st century[change | change source]
On 2 June 2014, Juan Carlos I announced that he would abdicate in favour of his son, Felipe VI. The date of abdication and handover to Felipe occurred on 19 June 2014. He and his wife kept their titles.
Ancient religions in Spain were mostly pagan. Today, however, at least 55 percent of Spain is Roman Catholic. Spanish mystic Teresa of Ávila is an important figure within Catholicism. 27 percent of Spaniards are irreligious. 2 percent are from other religions, this include Baha’i Buddhists, Jain, Muslim,Unitarian Universalism and Zoroastrianism.
Teide National Park, Tenerife
The middle of Spain is a high, dry, flat land called La Meseta. In La Meseta it can be very hot in the summer and cold or very cold in the winter. Spain also has many mountain ranges. The Mount Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), the highest mountain of Spain and the islands of the Atlantic (it is the third largest volcano in the world from its base). In the north there is a range of mountains called Los Picos de Europa (The European Peaks). Here it is very cold in winter with a lot of snow but with gentle warm summers.
In the south-east of the country is a range of mountains called La Sierra Nevada (The Snowy Mountains). This range of mountains contains the highest mountain in mainland Spain, Mulacen, at 2952 metres. La Sierra Nevada is very popular in winter for winter sports, especially skiing. Snow remains on its peaks throughout the year. The south coast, has a warm and temperate climate, not very hot or very cold. Since Spain is in the south of Europe, it is very sunny. Many people from Northern Europe take their vacations in Spain, enjoying its beaches and cities.
Spain has a border with Portugal in the west and borders with France and Andorra in the North. In the south, it borders Gibraltar, a British territory. The Spanish territories of Ceuta and Melilla are in North Africa and border onto Morocco.
Regions[change | change source]
Spain is divided into Autonomous Communities, which means that they have their own regional governments. They are Andalucía (capital city Seville), Aragon (capital city Zaragoza), Asturias (capital city Oviedo), Balearic Islands (capital city Palma de Mallorca), Basque Country (capital city Vitoria), Canary Islands (capital cities Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas), Cantabria (capital city Santander), Castilla-La Mancha (capital city Toledo), Castile and Leon (capital city Valladolid), Catalonia (capital city Barcelona), Extremadura (capital city Merida), Galicia (capital city Santiago de Compostela), La Rioja (capital city Logrono), Madrid Community (capital city Madrid), Murcia Community (capital city Murcia), Navarra (capital city Pamplona) and the Valencia Community (capital city Valencia).
Spain, Tapas[change | change source]
City areas[change | change source]
In Spain, many people live in cities or close to cities. The ten biggest city areas are:
|Pos.||City area||Region||Prov.||population (city + area)|
|9||Las Palmas de Gran Canaria||Canarias||Las Palmas de Gran Canaria||640,000|
Languages of Spain
While Spanish is the most spoken language in the country, other languages like Catalan, Basque or Galician are also spoken in a few territories.
- ↑ Presidency of the Government (11 October 1997). “Real Decreto 1560/1997, de 10 de octubre, por el que se regula el Himno Nacional” (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado núm. 244 (in Spanish). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015.
- ↑ “The Spanish Constitution”. Lamoncloa.gob.es. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- ↑ “Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Población (españoles/extranjeros) por País de Nacimiento, sexo y año”. ine.es. Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
- ↑ CIS.”Barómetro de Enero de 2022″, 3,777 respondents. The question was “¿Cómo se define Ud. en materia religiosa: católico/a practicante, católico/a no practicante, creyente de otra religión, agnóstico/a, indiferente o no creyente, o ateo/a?”.
- ↑ “Anuario estadístico de España 2008. 1ª parte: entorno físico y medio ambiente” (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- ↑ “Surface water and surface water change”. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- ↑ “INEbase / Demografía y población /Padrón. Población por municipios /Estadística del Padrón continuo. Últimos datos datos”. ine.es. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- ↑ 8.08.1“Population Figures at 01 January 2019. Migrations Statistics. Year 2019” (PDF) (in Spanish). National Statistics Institute (INE). June 2020. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017.
- ↑ 9.09.19.29.3“World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020”. IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- ↑ “Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey”. ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
- ↑ “Human Development Report 2020” (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- ↑ Goodman, Al; Mullen, Jethro; Levs, Josh (2 June 2014). “Spain’s King Juan Carlos I to abdicate”. CNN. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- ↑ “Spain will have two kings and two queens”. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- ↑ “Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (Centre for Sociological Research) (October 2017). “Barómetro de septiembre de 2017″ (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017” (PDF).
Notes[change | change source]
- ↑ In Spain, other languages are officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous (regional) languages under the Spanish Constitution. In each of these, Spain’s conventional long name for international affairs in Spanish laws and the most used (Spanish: Reino de España, pronounced: [ˈrejno ð(e) esˈpaɲa]) is as follows:
- Catalan: Regne d’Espanya, IPA: [ˈreŋnə ðəsˈpaɲə]
- Basque: Espainiako Erresuma, IPA: [es̺paɲiako eres̺uma]
- Galician: Reino de España, IPA: [ˈrejnʊ ð(ɪ) esˈpaɲɐ]
- Occitan: Reiaume d’Espanha, IPA: [reˈjawme ðesˈpaɲɔ]
- ↑ The official language of the State is established in the Section 3 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 to be Castilian.  In some autonomous communities, Catalan, Galician, Basque and Occitan (locally known as Aranese) are co-official languages. Aragonese and Asturian have some degree of official recognition.
- ↑ European Union (EU) since 1993.
- ↑ On 1 January 2020, the Spanish population was 47,330 million, an increase of 392,921. In the same period, the number of citizens with Spanish citizenship reached 42,094,606. The number of foreigners (i.e. immigrants, ex-pats and refugees, without including foreign born nationals with Spanish citizenship) permanently living in Spain was estimated to be at 5,235,375 (11.06%) in 2020.
- ↑ The Peseta before 2002.
- ↑ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Also, the .cat domain is used in Catalonia, .gal in Galicia and .eus in the Basque-Country autonomous regions.
Sagrada Familia | Architectuul
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The Basilica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Familia (English: Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family; Spanish: Basilica y Templo Expiatorio de la Sagrada Familia), commonly known as the Sagrada Familia, is a large Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926). Although incomplete, the church is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and in November 2010 was consecrated and proclaimed a minor basilica by Pope Benedict XVI.
Though construction of Sagrada Familia had commenced in 1882, Gaudi became involved in 1883, taking over the project and transforming it with his architectural and engineering style-combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau forms.
Gaudi devoted his last years to the project, and at the time of his death in 1926, less than a quarter of the project was complete. Sagrada Familia’s construction progressed slowly, as it relied on private donations and was interrupted by the Spanish Civil War-only to resume intermittent progress in the 1950s. Construction passed the midpoint in 2010 with some of the project’s greatest challenges remaining and an anticipated completion date of 2026-the centennial of Gaudi’s death. The basilica has a long history of dividing the citizens of Barcelona-over the initial possibility it might compete with Barcelona’s cathedral, over Gaudi’s design itself, over the possibility that work after Gaudi’s death disregarded his design, and the recent possibility that an underground tunnel of Spain’s high-speed train could disturb its stability.
Describing Sagrada Familia, art critic Rainer Zerbst said “it is probably impossible to find a church building anything like it in the entire history of art” and Paul Goldberger called it ‘the most extraordinary personal interpretation of Gothic architecture since the Middle Ages’.
The Basilica of the Sagrada Familia was the inspiration of a Catalan bookseller, Josep Maria Bocabella, founder of Asociacion Espiritual de Devotos de San Jose (Spiritual Association of Devotees of St. Joseph). After a visit to the Vatican in 1872, Bocabella returned from Italy with the intention of building a church inspired by that at Loreto. The crypt of the church, funded by donations, was begun 19 March 1882, on the festival of St. Joseph, to the design of the architect Francisco de Paula del Villar, whose plan was for a Gothic revival church of a standard form. Antoni Gaudi began work on the project in 1883. On 18 March 1883 Villar retired from the project, and Gaudi assumed responsibility for its design, which he changed radically.
On the subject of the extremely long construction period, Gaudi is said to have remarked: “My client is not in a hurry.” When Gaudi died in 1926, the basilica was between 15 and 25 percent complete. After Gaudi’s death, work continued under the direction of Domenec Sugranes i Gras until interrupted by the Spanish Civil War in 1936. Parts of the unfinished basilica and Gaudi’s models and workshop were destroyed during the war by Catalan anarchists. The present design is based on reconstructed versions of the plans that were burned in a fire as well as on modern adaptations. Since 1940 the architects Francesc Quintana, Isidre Puig Boada, Lluis Bonet i Gari and Francesc Cardoner have carried on the work. The illumination was designed by Carles Buigas. The current director and son of Lluis Bonet, Jordi Bonet i Armengol, has been introducing computers into the design and construction process since the 1980s. Mark Burry of New Zealand serves as Executive Architect and Researcher. Sculptures by J. Busquets, Etsuro Sotoo and the controversial Josep Subirachs decorate the fantastical facades.
The central nave vaulting was completed in 2000 and the main tasks since then have been the construction of the transept vaults and apse. As of 2006, work concentrated on the crossing and supporting structure for the main tower of Jesus Christ as well as the southern enclosure of the central nave, which will become the Glory facade.
On 19 April 2011, an arsonist started a small fire in the sacristy which forced the evacuation of tourists and construction workers, but caused minimal damage. The sacristy itself, however, was destroyed by the fire, which took 45 minutes to contain.
The style of la Sagrada Familia is variously likened to Spanish Late Gothic, Catalan Modernism and to Art Nouveau or Catalan Noucentisme. While the Sagrada Familia falls within the Art Nouveau period, Nikolaus Pevsner points out that, along with Charles Rennie Macintosh in Glasgow, Gaudi carried the Art Nouveau style far beyond its usual application as a surface decoration.
While never intended to be a cathedral (seat of a bishop), the Sagrada Familia was planned from the outset to be a cathedral-sized building. Its ground-plan has obvious links to earlier Spanish cathedrals such as Burgos Cathedral, Leon Cathedral and Seville Cathedral. In common with Catalan and many other European Gothic cathedrals, the Sagrada Familia is short in comparison to its width, and has a great complexity of parts, which include double aisles, an ambulatory with a chevet of seven apsidal chapels, a multitude of towers and three portals, each widely different in structure as well as ornament. Where it is common for cathedrals in Spain to be surrounded by numerous chapels and ecclesiastical buildings, the plan of this church has an unusual feature: a covered passage or cloister which forms a rectangle enclosing the church and passing through the narthex of each of its three portals. With this peculiarity aside, the plan, influenced by Villar’s crypt, barely hints at the complexity of Gaudi’s design or its deviations from traditional church architecture.
Gaudi’s original design calls for a total of eighteen spires, representing in ascending order of height the Twelve Apostles, the four Evangelists, the Virgin Mary and, tallest of all, Jesus Christ. Eight spires have been built as of 2010, corresponding to four apostles at the Nativity facade and four apostles at the Passion facade.
According to the 2005 Works Report of the project’s official website, drawings signed by Gaudi and recently found in the Municipal Archives, indicate that the spire of the Virgin was in fact intended by Gaudi to be shorter than those of the evangelists. The spire height will follow Gaudi’s intention, which according to the Works Report will work with the existing foundation.
The Evangelists’ spires will be surmounted by sculptures of their traditional symbols: a bull (Saint Luke), a winged man (Saint Matthew), an eagle (Saint John), and a lion (Saint Mark). The central spire of Jesus Christ is to be surmounted by a giant cross; the spire’s total height (170 metres (560 ft)) will be one metre less than that of Montjuic hill in Barcelona as Gaudi believed that his creation should not surpass God’s. The lower spires are surmounted by communion hosts with sheaves of wheat and chalices with bunches of grapes, representing the Eucharist.
The completion of the spires will make Sagrada Familia the tallest church building in the world.
The Church will have three grand facades: the Nativity facade to the East, the Passion facade to the West, and the Glory facade to the South (yet to be completed). The Nativity Facade was built before work was interrupted in 1935 and bears the most direct Gaudi influence. The Passion facade is especially striking for its spare, gaunt, tormented characters, including emaciated figures of Christ being scourged at the pillar; and Christ on the Cross. These controversial designs are the work of Josep Maria Subirachs. The Glory facade, on which construction began in 2002, will be the largest and most monumental of the three and will represent one’s ascension to God. It will also depict various scenes such as Hell, Purgatory, and will include elements such as the Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven Heavenly Virtues.
Constructed between 1894 and 1930, the Nativity facade was the first facade to be completed. Dedicated to the birth of Jesus, it is decorated with scenes reminiscent of elements of life. Characteristic of Gaudi’s naturalistic style, the sculptures are ornately arranged and decorated with scenes and images from nature, each a symbol in their own manner. For instance, the three porticos are separated by two large columns, and at the base of each lies a turtle or a tortoise (one to represent the land and the other the sea; each are symbols of time as something set in stone and unchangeable). In contrast to the figures of turtles and their symbolism, two chameleons can be found at either side of the facade, and are symbolic of change.
The facade faces the rising sun to the northeast, a symbol for the birth of Christ. It is divided into three porticos, each of which represents a theological virtue (Hope, Faith and Charity). The Tree of Life rises above the door of Jesus in the portico of Charity. Four towers complete the facade and are each dedicated to a Saint (Matthias the Apostle, Saint Barnabas, Jude the Apostle, and Simon the Zealot).
Originally, Gaudi intended for this facade to be polychromed, for each archivolt to be painted with a wide array of colours. He wanted every statue and figure to be painted. In this way the figures of humans would appear as much alive as the figures of plants and animals.
Gaudi chose this facade to embody the structure and decoration of the whole church. He was well aware that he would not finish the church and that he would need to set an artistic and architectural example for others to follow. He also chose for this facade to be the first on which to begin construction and for it to be, in his opinion, the most attractive and accessible to the public. He believed that if he had begun construction with the Passion Facade, one that would be hard and bare (as if made of bones), before the Nativity Facade, people would have withdrawn at the sight of it.
In contrast to the highly decorated Nativity Facade, the Passion Facade is austere, plain and simple, with ample bare stone, and is carved with harsh straight lines to resemble a skeleton if it were reduced to only bone. Dedicated to the Passion of Christ, the suffering of Jesus during his crucifixion, the facade was intended to portray the sins of man. Construction began in 1954, following the drawings and instructions left by Gaudi for future architects and sculptors. The towers were completed in 1976, and in 1987 a team of sculptors, headed by Josep Maria Subirachs, began work sculpting the various scenes and details of the facade. They aimed to give a rigid, angular form to provoke a dramatic effect. Gaudi intended for this facade to strike fear into the onlooker. He wanted to “break” arcs and “cut” columns, and to use the effect of chiaroscuro (dark angular shadows contrasted by harsh rigid light) to further show the severity and brutality of Christ’s sacrifice.
Facing the setting sun, indicative and symbolic of the death of Christ, the Passion Facade is supported by six large and inclined columns, designed to resemble sequoia trunks. Above there is a pyramidal pediment, made up of eighteen bone-shaped columns, which culminate in a large cross with a crown of thorns. Each of the four towers is dedicated to an apostle (James, Thomas, Philip, or Bartholomew) and, like the Nativity Facade, there are three porticos, each representing the theological virtues, though in a much different light.
The scenes sculpted into the facade may be divided into three levels, which ascend in an ‘S’ form and reproduce the Calvary, or Golgotha, of Christ. The lowest level depicts scenes from Jesus’ last night before the crucifixion, including The Last Supper, Kiss of Judas, Ecce Homo, and the Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus. The middle level portrays the Calvary, or Golgotha, of Christ, and includes The Three Marys, Saint Veronica, Saint Longinus, and a hollow-face illusion of Christ. In the third and final level the Death, Burial and the Resurrection of Christ can be seen. A bronze figure situated on a bridge creating a link between the towers of Saint Bartholomew and Saint Thomas represents the Ascension of Jesus.
The largest and most striking of the facades will be the Glory Facade, on which construction began in 2002. It will be the principal facade and will offer access to the central nave. Dedicated to the Celestial Glory of Jesus, it represents the road to God: Death, Final Judgment, and Glory, while Hell is left for those who deviate from God’s will. Aware that he would not live long enough to see this facade completed, Gaudi made only a general sketch of what the facade would look like. He intended for the temple, like many cathedrals and facades throughout history, not only to be completed by other architects but also to incorporate other architectural and artistic styles.
To reach the Glory Portico, there will be a large staircase, which will create an underground passage beneath Carrer Mallorca, representing Hell and vice. It will be decorated with demons, idols, false gods, heresy and schisms, etc. Purgatory and death will also be depicted, the latter using tombs along the ground. The portico will have seven large columns dedicated to spiritual gifts. At the base of the columns there will be representations of the Seven Deadly Sins, and at the top, The Seven Heavenly Virtues.
The church plan is that of a Latin cross with five aisles. The central nave vaults reach forty-five metres while the side nave vaults reach thirty metres. The transept has three aisles. The columns are on a 7.5 metre grid. However, the columns of the apse, resting on del Villar’s foundation, do not adhere to the grid, requiring a section of columns of the ambulatory to transition to the grid thus creating a horseshoe pattern to the layout of those columns. The crossing rests on the four central columns of porphyry supporting a great hyperboloid surrounded by two rings of twelve hyperboloids (currently under construction). The central vault reaches sixty metres. The apse is capped by a hyperboloid vault reaching seventy-five metres. Gaudi intended that a visitor standing at the main entrance be able to see the vaults of the nave, crossing, and apse, thus the graduated increase in vault loftiness.
There are gaps in the floor of the apse, providing a view down into the crypt below.
The columns of the interior are a unique Gaudi design. Besides branching to support their load, their ever-changing surfaces are the result of the intersection of various geometric forms. The simplest example is that of a square base evolving into an octagon as the column rises, then a sixteen-sided form, and eventually to a circle. This effect is the result of a three-dimensional intersection of helicoidal columns (for example a square cross-section column twisting clockwise and a similar one twisting counter-clockwise).
Essentially none of the interior surfaces are flat; the ornamentation is comprehensive and rich, consisting in large part of abstract shapes which combine smooth curves and jagged points. Even detail-level work such as the iron railings for balconies and stairways are full of curvaceous elaboration.
The towers on the Nativity facade are crowned with geometrically shaped tops that are reminiscent of Cubism (they were finished around 1930), and the intricate decoration is contemporary to the style of Art Nouveau, but Gaudi’s unique style drew primarily from nature, not other artists or architects, and resists categorization.
Gaudi used hyperboloid structures in later designs of the Sagrada Familia (more obviously after 1914), however there are a few places on the nativity facade-a design not equated with Gaudi’s ruled-surface design-where the hyperboloid crops up. For example, all around the scene with the pelican there are numerous examples (including the basket held by one of the figures). There is a hyperboloid adding structural stability to the cypress tree (by connecting it to the bridge). And finally, the “bishop’s mitre” spires are capped with hyperboloid structures. In his later designs, ruled surfaces are prominent in the nave’s vaults and windows and the surfaces of the Passion facade.
Themes throughout the decoration include words from the liturgy. The towers are decorated with words such as “Hosanna”, “Excelsis”, and “Sanctus”; the great doors of the Passion facade reproduce words from the Bible in various languages including Catalan; and the Glory facade is to be decorated with the words from the Apostles’ Creed. The three entrances symbolize the three virtues: Faith, Hope and Love. Each of them is also dedicated to a part of Christ’s life. The Nativity Facade is dedicated to his birth; it also has a cypress tree which symbolizes the tree of life. The Glory facade is dedicated to his glory period. The Passion facade is symbolic of his suffering. All in all, the Sagrada Familia is symbolic of the lifetime of Christ.
Areas of the sanctuary will be designated to represent various concepts, such as saints, virtues and sins, and secular concepts such as regions, presumably with decoration to match.
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Sagrada Familia (Barcelona, Spain) watch online video from Krugozor in good quality.
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Gaudi Heritage – Church of the Sagrada Familia (Sagrada Familia) in Barcelona, part 1
Church of the Sagrada Familia ( full name in Catalan – cat. Geniuses Catalonia – Spanish architect Antonio Gaudí (1852-1926), located in the Eixample district in Barcelona . Be sure to take the time to visit this piece of architectural art, because, despite the huge number of photographs on the Internet, they will in no way be able to convey personal feelings
Construction of Sagrada Família has not been completed yet, despite the fact that its construction began in 1882. Initially, construction was carried out only on private, voluntary donations, and this tradition continues to this day. Therefore, remember – buying entrance tickets, an audio guide, souvenirs – all this will be your contribution, your contribution, albeit small, but to the continuation of construction. If all goes according to plan, the construction of Sagrada Familia will be completed by 2026, the centenary of the birth of the great architect.
After construction of Sagrada Familia will be adorned with 18 towers. Four towers on each of the three facades symbolize the twelve apostles (the height of the towers is from 90 to 120 meters). Four more will surround the tallest tower (170 meters high) dedicated to Jesus Christ. And another tower dedicated to the Virgin Mary will be built on the apse.
On November 7, 2012, the church was visited by Pope Benedict XVI, who celebrated mass and sprinkled the altar with holy water. From now on, official services can be held here, and Sagrada Familia has received the rank of basilica. About 6.5 thousand people attended the consecration ceremony.
Sagrada Família (Sagrada Família) refers to architectural monuments that are under the protection of UNESCO. More than five million tourists visit it every year.
How to get to Sagrada Familia
Address Sagrada Família : La Sagrada FamiliaCalle Mallorca, 40108013 Barcelona, España
Can be reached by public transport, or (like us) by tourist bus Barcelona Bus Touristic (Barcelona Bus Touristic). Very comfortably. Ride, admire the beauties of Barcelona and once – the famous bell towers appear above the crowns of trees
The tourist bus stop has the same name “Sagrada Familia” and is located almost directly opposite the church. Pass through a small park, past a cafe, and now – you are at the goal of your trip, directly opposite the southern facade of the Passion of Christ and at the same time at the main entrance.
Right next to the building Sagrada Família (Sagrada Familia) there is a metro exit (station “Sagrada Familia”, lines L2 (blue), L5 (purple))
Get out of the metro – and immediately see the queue))) About the queue. There is no queue in the photo above, since the shot was taken already at the beginning of the ninth evening. But during the day there is a queue. It moves fast enough, we stood for about 30 minutes, and this despite the fact that the queue was bent around the corner for another 10 meters (right around the corner is a McDonald’s cafe, whoever gets hungry can quickly grab some hamburger))) There is also a small cafe right opposite entrance. There are few tables, but you can also sit.
The cost of visiting the Church of the Sagrada Familia (Sagrada Familia)
So, what do we have with the cost of visiting. At the beginning of September 2012 the situation was as follows:
- Visit only Sagrada Família : 13.0 euros
- Ticket to Sagrada Família + visit (ascent) of the tower: 16.0 euros
- Ticket to Sagrada Família + audio guide (duration 1 hour 45 minutes, eight languages, including Russian): 17. 0 EUR
- Ticket to Sagrada Família + excursion: €17.0
- Ticket to Sagrada Família + visit to the Casa-Museu Gaudí in Parc Güell: €16.50
For students, pensioners and persons aged 10 to 18:
- Visit only Sagrada Família : 11.0 euros
- Ticket to Sagrada Família + visit (ascent) of the tower: 14.0 euros
- Ticket to Sagrada Familia + audio guide: EUR 14.0
- Ticket to Sagrada Família + tour (not available in Russian, only in Catalan, Spanish and English): 14.0 EUR
- Audio guide for children under 10: 3.0 EUR
- Entrance for children under 10: free
( Please note that inflation has not been canceled, prices may change. )
For security reasons, children under 6 years old are not allowed to visit the towers. Children from 6 to 14 years old must be accompanied by an adult.
In general, we took tickets with a climb to the tower + separately bought audio guides. I recommend. On the territory of the church there are special stands with numbers, near which you turn on the audio guide and calmly listen to the information. Climbing the towers (or the Nativity façade or the Passion façade) is scheduled, but this is no problem, just plan your walk inside the church.
The kiosk where you buy the audio guide is located on the right side of the main entrance.
Closes 30 minutes before church closes. Near the kiosk there are special boxes (similar to trash cans) into which we throw audio guides.
Prepare cash at the ticket office
Tickets for Sagrada Familia can also be pre-purchased online at www.ticketmaster.es. Website in Catalan and English. For convenience, choose English. In the left corner, choose the city – Barcelona . Then select the menu item “Family and More” and this window opens
Go, you get into the window for choosing purchase options (I wrote about the types of tickets above).