Basilica de santa: Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome

Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome

Rome / Attractions / Santa Maria Maggiore

Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, the Mary Major Church

The ‘Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore’ on Esquiline Hill is the largest church dedicated to Mary in Rome, and it is one of the four papal basilicas in Rome.

Info Santa Maria Maggiore

Address Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore, 42 Rome
Metro Metro stop Termini (Line A or B)
Opening hours
  • Basilica: daily from 7:00 am to 6:45 pm (free)
  • Museum: daily from 9:30 am to 6:30 pm
Dresscode Please wear appropriate clothing that covers the shoulders and knees.
Website Official website

Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore

The ‘Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore’ is the largest (‘Maggiore’) of the eighty Mary churches in Rome. This church was built in 432 by order of pope Sixtus III on Esquiline Hill and is one of the seven pilgrim churches and one the four papal basilicas in Rome (The others are St. Peter’s Basilica, San Giovanni in Laterano and San Paolo Fuori Le Mura). The Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore was built on the site where the Virgin Mary appeared in a dream of pope Liberius. This is also where a blanket of snow appeared on the hill on 5 August in the middle of Summer. This day is commemorated every year with white flower petals that are dropped from the ceiling.

Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore

Altar of the St. Mary’s Church

Many of the mosaics in the basilica (in the nave and on the arch, for instance) were part of the original building. The large marble columns of the basilica are even older and probably came from an ancient Roman building. Unique in this church is the golden, coffered ceiling, commissioned by the controversial Pope Alexander VI and built with the first of the gold Columbus brought back from America.

Roof of papal basilica

Dome of the St. Mary’s Church in Rome

The 14th-century bell tower is also the highest bell tower in Rome at 75 metres. It is said that there are pieces of wood from Jesus’ crib underneath the altar (Sacra Culla). To the left of the main entrance is the Holy Door. If people walk through all four holy doors of Rome in a single day during a jubilee, it is believed they earn an indulgence and are absolved of their sins.

The patriarchal basilica contains the funerary monuments of Pope Clement IX, Paul V and Nicolas IV. A number of other famous Catholics are buried here as well, including the saint Jerome and the artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The basilica also contains a museum where you can find out more about the history of the church and view old masterpieces.

Where is the Santa Maria church located in Rome?

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The Papal Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore

Situated on the summit of the Esquiline Hill, St. Mary Major is the only patriarchal basilica of the four in Rome to have retained its paleo-Christian structures.

Tradition has it that the Virgin Mary herself inspired the choice of the Esquiline Hill for the church’s construction. Appearing in a dream to both the Patrician John and Pope Liberius, she asked that a church be built in her honor on a site she would miraculously indicate.

The morning of August 5th, the Esquiline Hill was covered with a blanket of snow. The pope traced out the perimeter of the basilica in the snow, and John financed the construction of the new church.

Nothing remains of this church but a few lines in the Liber Pontificalis affirming that Pope Liberius “Fecit basilicam nomini suo iuxta Macellum Liviae.” Recent excavations underneath the present church have not brought to light any remains of this ancient structure. However, many important archeological monuments such as the stupendous calendar from the second or third century AD and remains of Roman walls have been discovered.

The Romanesque bell tower, built by Gregory XI after his return from Avignon, rises 75 meters high and is the tallest in Rome. The belfry contains five bells, one of which, “La Sperduta,” or “the lost one,” rings every evening at nine with its distinctive sound to call the faithful to prayer.

To the right upon entering the portico stands a statue of King Phillip IV of Spain, one of the Basilica’s benefactors. The clay model for this sculpture was created by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in the seventeenth century, though Girolamo Lucenti carved the finished work. The central door is made of bronze and was cast by Ludovico Pogliaghi in 1949, displaying episodes from the life of Mary framed by images of Prophets, Evangelists and the four women of the Old Testament who prefigure the Blessed Virgin. To the left stands the new Holy Door, blessed by John Paul II on December 8, 2001. It was completed by the sculptor Luigi Mattei and donated to the basilica by the Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

The right panel of the Holy Door shows the Resurrected Christ modelled after the image on the Shroud of Turin, who appears to Mary, represented here as Salus Populi Romani. In the upper left corner lies a representation of the Annunciation at the Well, a story drawn from apocryphal Gospels, while on the right there is an image of Pentecost. The lower corners display on the left, the Council of Ephesus which proclaimed Mary as THEOTOKOS, Mother of God and on the right, the Second Vatican Council which declared Mary Mater Ecclesiae or Mother of the Church. The Papal coat-of-arms of John Paul II, as well as his motto Totus Tuus, lies above the door, while the two emblems further down are those of Cardinal Carlo Furno, archpriest of the Basilica in 2001, and of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre.

The present Basilica dates back to the fifth century AD. Its construction was tied to the Council of Ephesus of 431 AD, which proclaimed Mary  Theotokos, Mother of God. Sixtus III commissioned and financed the project as Bishop of Rome. Crossing the threshold, one is overwhelmed by the vision of vast space, splendid marbles, and marvelous decoration. The monumental effect is due to the structure of the basilica and the harmony that reigns among the principal architectural elements. Constructed according to Vitruvius’ canon of rhythmic elegance, the basilica is divided into a nave and two side aisles by two rows of precious columns. Above these columns runs the skillfully wrought entablature, interrupted at the transept by the grand arches erected for the building of the Sistine and Pauline chapels. The area between the columns and the ceiling was once punctuated by large windows, half of which still remain, while the other half have been covered over by a wall. Over the walled windows, today one can admire frescos showing stories from the life of the Virgin. Above the window and frescos, a wooden frieze adorned with an exquisite inlay of cupid-like figures riding bulls unites the cornice with the ceiling. The bulls are the symbol of the Borgia family; and the coat of arms of Callixtus III and Alexander VI, the Borgia popes, stand out at the center of the ceiling. It is not clear what contribution Callixtus III made to this work, but it is certain that Alexander VI carried out the project while he was still archpriest of the Basilica. The coffered ceiling was designed by Giuliano Sangallo and later completed by his brother Antonio. Tradition has it that the first gold brought from the New World, which Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain offered to Alexander VI, was utilized for the ceiling’s gilding. The pavement of intricately inlaid stones extends before us like a splendid carpet. Designed by the marble masters of the Cosmati family in the thirteenth century, it was donated by the Roman nobleman Scotus Paparoni and his son Giovanni. The unique quality of St. Mary Major however, comes from the fifth century mosaics, commissioned by Sixtus III, that run along the nave and across the triumphal arch. The nave mosaics recount four cycles of Sacred History featuring Abraham, Jacob, Moses and Joshua; seen together, they are meant to testify to God’s promise of a land for the Jewish people and His assistance as they strive to reach it.

The story, which does not proceed in chronological order, starts on the left-hand wall near the triumphal arch with the Sacrifice of the Priest-King Melchisedek. This panel shows clear Roman iconographic influence. Melchisedek is seen using the customary gesture of offering, while Abraham, wearing a Roman toga, is reminiscent of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius. The next scenes illustrate earlier episodes from the life of Abraham. For a long time, scholars thought that each mosaic was independent of the others, but upon further study it appears that the decoration was planned and organized to hold special meaning. The Melchisedek panel ties the nave images together with those of the triumphal arch which recount the infancy of Christ, King and Priest. Then begins the narrative of Abraham, the most important personage of the Old Testament, to whom God promised a great and powerful nation. The stories continue with Jacob, with whom God renews the promise made to Abraham, Moses, who liberates his people from the slavery in which they were born, making them the chosen people, and finally Joshua, who will lead them to the Promised Land. The journey concludes with two final panels, frescoed at the time of the restoration commissioned by Cardinal Pinelli, which show David leading the Ark of the Covenant into Jerusalem and the Temple of Jerusalem built by Solomon. Jesus was born from the line of David, and thus Christ’s childhood, as narrated in apocryphal Gospels, is illustrated in the triumphal arch.

In 1995, a new, rose window in stained glass was created for the main façade by Giovanni Hajnal. It reaffirms the declaration of the Second Vatican Council that Mary, the exalted daughter of Zion, is the link that unites the Church to the Old Testament. To symbolize the Old Testament, Hajnal used the seven-branched candlestick, for the New Testament, the chalice of the Eucharist.

The triumphal arch is composed of four images. The first, in the upper left, shows the Annunciation, with Mary robed like a Roman princess. She holds a spindle as she weaves a purple veil for the Temple where she serves. The story continues with the Annunciation to Joseph, the Adoration of the Magi and the Massacre of the Innocents. In this last scene, there is a woman in a blue robe facing away from the other women; she is St. Elizabeth, fleeing with her son John the Baptist in her arms. The upper right illustrates the Presentation in the Temple, the Flight into Egypt and the encounter between the Holy Family and Aphrodisius, governor of Sotine. The Apocryphal Gospels recount that when Jesus took refuge in Sotine in Egypt, the 365 idols of the capitol fell down. Awed by this prodigy, Aphrodisius, remembered the fate of Pharaoh and hastened with his army to adore the Child Jesus, recognizing His Divinity. The last scene represents the Magi before Herod. At the bottom of the arch lie two cities, Bethlehem on the left and Jerusalem on the right. Bethlehem is the place where Jesus was born and where the Epiphany took place, while Jerusalem is where He died and rose again. The obvious connection between these scenes and the theme of the Apocalypse, the Second Coming at the end of time, can be seen in the empty throne in the center of the arch, flanked by St. Peter, who was called by Christ to spread the Good News among the Jews, and St. Paul, who was entrusted to evangelize the Gentiles. Together they will form the church of which Peter is the leader, and Sixtus III is his successor. In his role of Episcopus plebi Dei the Pope’s duty is to guide the people of God towards the heavenly Jeruselem. In the thirteenth century, Nicholas IV, the first Franciscan pope, decided to destroy the old apse and construct the present one, placing it several meters back so as to create a transept for the choir between the arch and the apse. The decoration of the apse was executed by the Franciscan Jacopo Torriti, and the work was paid for by Cardinals Giacomo and Pietro Colonna.

Torriti’s mosaic is divided into two distinct parts. The central medallion of the apse shows the Coronation of the Virgin while the lower band illustrates the most important moments of her life. In the center of the medallion, enclosed by concentric circles, Jesus and Mary are seated on a large oriental throne. The Son is placing a jeweled crown on Mary’s head. In this mosaic, Mary is not only seen as mother but as Mother Church, bride of her Son. The sun, the moon and a choir of adoring angels are arranged around their feet, while St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Francis of Assisi along with Pope Nicholas IV flank them on the left. On the right, Torriti portrayed St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, St. Anthony and the donor, Cardinal Colonna.

The rest of the apse decoration is composed of two acanthus trees placed at the extreme left and right of the mosaic, whose branches curl and blossom around the gold background. In the lower apse, mosaic scenes showing the life of the Madonna are arranged to the left and right of the central panel, which represents the Dormition of the Virgin and is situated directly below the image of the Coronation. This way of describing the death of Mary is typical of Byzantine iconography, but was also widely diffused in the West after the Crusades.

Mary is represented lying on a bed, as angels prepare to transport her body to Heaven under the eyes of the astonished apostles. Jesus takes her pure white soul into his arms, about to carry her off to Paradise. Torriti embellished the scene with two little Franciscan figures and a layman wearing a thirteenth century cap. Below the Dormition Pope Benedict XIV placed the splendid painting of the Nativity of Christ by Francesco Mancini. Between the ionic pilasters arranged under the mosaics, Ferdinando Fuga placed a series of low-relief panels by Mino del Reame representing the Nativity, the Miracle of the Snows and the Foundation of the Basilica under Pope Liberius, the Assumption of the Virgin and the Adoration of the Magi. Fuga also designed the graceful canopy that rises over the central altar.

The Confession, or reliquary crypt, lies before the main altar, and was constructed by Virginio Vespignani at the behest of Pope Pius IX to contain the sacred relic of the Holy Crib. The crystal reliquary, shaped like a crib, contains pieces of ancient wood which tradition holds to be part of the manger where the Baby Jesus was laid. The Ambassadress of Portugal donated the reliquary which was designed by Giuseppe Valadier. The statue of Pius IX, the Pope of the Immaculate Conception, was sculpted by Ignazio Jacometti and placed in the crypt by Leo XIII.

The Holy Crib

In the crypt under the high altar lies the celebrated relic known as the Holy Crib. A statue of Pope Pius IX kneeling before the ancient wooden pieces of the manger serves as an example to the faithful who come to see the first humble crib of the Savior. Pius IX’s devotion to the Holy Crib led him to commission the crypt chapel, and his coat of arms is visible above the altar. The precious crystal urn trimmed in silver, through which the faithful can venerate the relic, was designed by Giuseppe Valadier.

Arnolfo di Cambio’s “Crib”

The spiritual and sentimental image of the reconstruction of the “Crib” in remembrance of the venerated event of Christ’s birth, originated in 432 when Pope Sixtus III (432-440) created, within the primitive Basilica, a “cave of the Nativity” similar to that in Bethlehem. Numerous pilgrims returning to Rome from the Holy Land, brought back precious fragments of the Holy Crib (cunambulum), which are now kept in the golden Confessional shrine.

During the following centuries several popes took care of Sixtus III’s Holy Cave, until Pope Nicolò IV in 1288 commissioned a sculpture of the “Nativity” by Arnolfo di Cambio.

Many changes and reconstructions took place in the basilica. When Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) wished to erect the large Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament or Sistina in the right nave, he ordered the architect Domenico Fontana to transfer, without dismantling, the ancient “cave of the Nativity” with its surviving elements of Arnolfo di Cambio’s sculpture.

The three Magi, dressed in elegant vestments and shoes in a rough gothic style, and Saint Joseph admire with a sense of wonder and reverence  the miracle of the Baby in the Virgin Mary’s arms (of P. Olivieri) warmed by the ox and the donkey. 

Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome: history, address, how to get there


Church of Santa Maria Maggiore (Basilica Papale di Santa Maria Maggiore) is not just another Catholic church in Rome. In fact, this is one of the four main basilicas of the eternal city, that is, the cathedral of the highest rank!



The papal basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore was founded in the early Christian period. The history of its construction has turned into a beautiful legend over time. The Roman Bishop Liberius had a wondrous dream in which the Blessed Virgin appeared to him and commanded him to build a temple on the spot where snow would fall in the morning. With the advent of a new day, the Pope was informed that the Esquiline Hill (lat. Mons Esquilinus) of Rome was wrapped in a snow-white blanket. So, in 352 AD. laid the first stone of the basilica.

In the 5th century, the temple was significantly enlarged and rebuilt at the behest of Pope Sixtus III. It was then that the basilica was dedicated to the Mother of God. As the centuries passed, the bishops who came to power added splendor and beauty to Santa Maria Maggiore, brought new relics to the church. In the 14th century, a bell tower 75 meters high grew above the three-aisled basilica. Pope Gregory XI initiated the construction of the bell tower shortly after his return from Avignon. One of the five bells rings at exactly 9evenings to strengthen the faith of those who pray.

The modern facade of the building is a mixture of Romanesque and Baroque styles. The last significant element of the external decor was the addition of a majestic loggia with a portico. The architect Ferdinando Fuga (Ferdinando Fuga), who during the XVIII century was engaged in the interior decoration of the temple, took up the improvement of the external appearance as a final chord.


Particular attention of visitors is attracted by the mosaic elements of Santa Maria Maggiore, which have come down to the present from the 5th century AD. The main nave of the church and the triumphal arch were inlaid with mosaic paintings during the reign of Pope Sixtus III.

Bright paintings of the Old Testament look solemn against the background of the richly decorated altar of the temple.

The entrance to the Basilica is adorned with the Miracle with Snow mosaic, which refers visitors to the temple’s legendary past. In the 13th century, a mosaic illustrating the coronation of the Madonna, the mother of Jesus, was also applied to the apse of the basilica. The impressive painting was made by the Prior of the Franciscan Order, Jacopo Torriti, commissioned by Pope Nicholas IV.

The Church of Santa Maria Maggiore also has a stunning 13th-century Cosmatesque floor ornament.

Geometric patterns on the floor echo the ornate ceiling by Giuliano Sangallo. The wooden ceiling panels are covered with gold mined in Peru by Spanish explorers.

The priceless relic of the basilica – the Holy cradle, which is located under the main altar. The kneeling statue of Pope Pius IX symbolizes faith and reverence for the ancient shrine.

A precious crystal urn, painted with silver, hides fragments of a wooden manger in which the baby Jesus once lay.

The statue of the same name by Arnolfo di Cambio continues the theme of Christmas.


Numerous chapels dedicated to the cardinal and popes, as well as an ancient baptistery complete the decoration of the temple. All three chapels amaze with their decoration.

Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina)

A lot of work of sculptors and artists was put into the embodiment of a holistic image of the Sistine Chapel. Sixtus V was depicted in stone, kneeling before the cradle of God’s son. In the center of the chapel is an altar decorated with four golden angels. Pope Sixtus V and Pius V found their rest in this chapel. Not far from the entrance to the chapel there is a modest marble slab with a commemorative inscription that the great architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini found eternal rest in this place in 1680.

Cappella Borghese

The architect of the Borghese chapel, Flaminio Ponzio, had at his disposal significant means of the family in order to create a grandiose cultural and religious masterpiece. The main decoration of the chapel is the icon of Madanna Solus Populi Romani (lat. Madonna Salus Populi Romani). The decor of the chapel is made of marble, bronze, ornate gilded cornices. In the center of all this riot of luxury is an altar of rich blue color. Among the exquisite wealth and ecclesiastical luxury lie the tombs of Clement VIII and Paul V.

Sforza Chapel (Cappella Sforza)

The Sforza Chapel pales somewhat against the background of two of the richest church tombs. However, there is an opinion that the architect Giacomo della Porta, who created it for an influential Italian family, based his work on the sketches of Michelangelo himself (Michelangelo Buonarroti).


Just below Santa Maria Maggiore, there is a museum that tells visitors what the papal cathedral is like. Eight rooms contain exhibits one way or another connected with: the history of the basilica, the sacrament of the Nativity of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints who patronized the church. The walls of the museum contain paintings, sculptures, precious attributes of papal power, sacred relics and other values ​​that give the temple the status of a great one.

Museum opening hours: daily, from 9:30 to 18:30.

Santa Maria Maggiore Square (Piazza di Santa Maria Maggiore)

The Church of Santa Maria Maggiore is located near the square of the same name. In front of the main facade of the building rises a monument dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the deliverer from the plague. It is noteworthy that the statue of the immaculate Virgin was taken in the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, which is located on the ruins of the Roman Forum (lat. Forum Romanum). The plague column was installed in Rome in 1614 and became a model for similar monuments throughout Europe.

Interesting facts

Every year on August 5, a snow miracle is celebrated – thousands of snow-white petals swirl in the temple building, depicting a prophetic snowfall. And in the evening, Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore turns into a stage for the performance of Italian artists. All the action ends with a snowfall. Thousands of regular parishioners and guests of the capital come to admire this holiday.

Song about Santa Maria Maggiore

Santa Maria Maggiore is an exceptional place, amazing masterpieces of art are harmoniously intertwined with the spiritual world. Being under the vaults of an ancient Christian basilica was quite enough for the Moldavian composer Petar Teodorovich (Petre Teodorovich). The last of his works was the song “Roman Midnight”. Written in collaboration with the author Nikolai Zinoviev, this song won the hearts of listeners more than once.

Getting there

  • The cathedral is located in Rome at Piazza di Santa Maria Maggiore, 42.
  • You can reach the temple on foot from Termini railway station . Only ten minutes walk along Via Cavour will take tourists to walk from the Termini metro station (line A or B) to the basilica.
  • Working hours: daily, from 7:00 to 19:00. You can confess in English, Spanish, German, Polish and other languages.
  • Phone: +39 06 698 86800
  • Description on the official website of the Vatican:

Author: Guide in Italy Yakutsevich Artur

Guide, traveler, marathon runner, journalist, creator of the site ITALY FOR ME. I live in Rome and I live in Rome. I conduct author’s excursions at dawn so that everyone, like me ten years ago, fell in love with the Eternal City at first sight. I organize tours with wonderful people, professional guides in Rome, Florence, Venice, Milan, Verona, Bologna, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, Turin, Genoa.
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Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome: detailed information with photos | Tourist Guide

Borghese Chapel

At the beginning of the 17th century, Paul V became pontiff, who was called Camillo Borghese in the world. Thanks to him, the Borghese Chapel appeared, its other name is Paolinskaya. The chapel has the shape of a Latin cross with a towering dome on pilasters. The chapel is decorated with bronze, marble and gilding. In the central part there is an altar, as well as the tombs of Paul V and Clement VIII. The main decoration of the Borghese chapel is the icon of Salus Populi Romani, which means “Salvation of the Roman people”. It is said that it was thanks to this icon that the Romans managed to escape from the plague.

By the way, Camillo Borghese’s nephew, Scipione Borghese, was an avid collector. The paintings and art objects are unique. It was this collection that formed the basis of the Borghese Gallery. Attractions are 2.2 km apart.

Sforza Chapel

This chapel is more modest than the previous two. Inside the room is decorated with marble, the side apses and the wall near the altar are crowned with sculptures and frescoes. There is information that the architect Giacomo della Porta built the chapel, guided by the sketches of Michelangelo Buonarroti.

It is forbidden to take photographs in this chapel, but we managed to find one photo.

Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore © Bill Perry / Shutterstock

Museum of Santa Maria Maggiore

The Basilica houses a museum. There are 8 rooms equipped here, where exhibits are located that tell about the history of the temple, the Virgin Mary, the Sacrament of the birth of the Son of God. Precious papal attributes, paintings, relics, statues, etc. are also kept here.

Annual feast

Every year on the 5th of August, the basilica celebrates a snow miracle – many white petals falling from above symbolize the very snow that was the harbinger of the creation of the basilica. In the evening, Italian artists perform on Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore – tens of thousands of parishioners and tourists come here to take part in this celebration.

Information for visitors

Address: Piazza di S. Maria Maggiore, 42, 00100 Roma RM, Italy

Santa Maria Maggiore opening hours: 7:30 am to 6:30 pm daily

The basilica sometimes closes, so it’s best to check in advance before visiting.

Entrance: free of charge

How to get there:

  • by bus: 16, 714, 70 or 717;
  • by metro: Termini station (interchange lines A and B).

There are many hotels near the Basilica: B&B Roma Domus Liberius, Princeps Boutique Hotel, La Casa di Amy Guest House. The cost of living in this area is from 90 euro per night.

Santa Maria Maggiore on the map

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